The Origins of Halloween
Halloween goes back to pagan times. It is based on the Celtic feast for the dead called Samhain- the Lord of Death. Halloween was the eve of the Celtic New Year. It began on the evening of 31, October and continued until the next day. The Celts believed that ghosts, witches, black cats and evil spirits returned to earth on that night. Ghosts were thought to be the souls of the dead. People were afraid of evil spirits so they made bonfires to frighten them away. They also put on animal skins and masks to protect themselves. If the bonfire went out, they all ran home as fast as they could because they thought that the devil would catch the last person.
The colours of Halloween- orange and black- are of Celtic origin, too.
Orange was the colour of the harvest and black was the colour of winter and long dark nights.
During Christian times the date became known as All Hallows’ Eve, the evening of hallows (saints). Later it became Halloween. In the 8th century the Church decided to call 1, November All Saints’ Day. It was the time to pray for the dead and honour the saints.
Halloween Celebrations Today
On Halloween children enjoy wearing different scary costumes. They dress up like witches, ghosts, skeletons, monsters, vampires or aliens. In the evening they go from house to house and ring the bell. When the door opens they shout “trick-or-treat?” and people give them some sweets or money. If they don’t get a treat, they play tricks on the house and its owners. The tradition of “trick or treating” originated in Ireland and was brought to the USA in the 19th century.
Another popular tradition is to make jack-o’-lanterns. A jack-o’-lantern is a carved out pumpkin with holes for the eyes, nose and mouth. It has a candle inside which gives light. Some people claim that candle flames that flicker on October,31 touched by the spirits of the dead. A lot of schools organize Halloween parties and different games. One of them is called “bobbing for apples”.
Everybody must try to take an apple out of the water with teeth only. It is difficult because the apples float in the bowl of water and it is not allowed to use hands!Some adults also organize evening parties. They eat apples, nuts and sweets, and tell spine- chilling stories or listen to music.
Nowadays Halloween is a very happy holiday and it is popular not only in the USA and Great Britain but also in many other countries.
News prepared by Karolina Mietelska from 1g.
On 31st November our school organised a Halloween disguise competition. The student in the best costume was the winner. One of the students was Zosia Kandora from 3g (photos taken by Karol Baryła from 1f)
“The World of English”
“Seasons and Celebrations”
World-famous music stars going on a tour all around the world became a daily part of every news show. But information about former presidential married couple going on a tour has suprised many. For those who thought that it would be a bunch of music shows, sadly we have to inform you that it won’t be anything like that.
Democratic presidential candidate for 2016, Hillary Clinton, and her husband Former President Bill Clinton decided to travel the U.S. and Canada, and visit 13 cities starting this year in November, and finishing in May 2019. The events called “An Evening with President Bill Clinton and former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton” are produced by Live Nation, and will focus on stories and inspiring anecdotes that shaped their historic careers in public service. According to the tour’s organizer, they will also include ‘’discussing issues of the day, and looking towards the future’’. We shouldn’t forget that Live Nation has handled tours of the biggest music stars such as Beyonce, Taylor Swift and Bruno Mars.
“Attendees will have the opportunity to hear one-of-the-kind conversations with the two leaders, as they tell their stories from some of the most impactful moments in modern history” – Live Nation says. We know from the past, that both politicians were placed in the center of a few controversies. For example, Hillary participated in one of the most controversial and unpredictable presidential elections of all time. The tour’s organizer stated that because of what happend “they provide a unique perspective on the past and remarkable insight into where we go from here”.
For attending one of the events, you will have to pay about 745$. That’s a really high price, so I think that all of us are wondering if their utterances are worth it.
Personally I think that these events can bring a new perspective into the U.S. politics and also they may change the way we perceive the Clintons. Of course, the change can be for the better or for the worse.
News prepared by Magdalena Szyda from 1g.
Moreover, if interested, you can read a great book about Hillary and written by Hillary. An English version is entitled “Living History”, but it has its Polish version too: “Tworząc Historię”. The book is quite thick but really worth reading!
Added by Ms M.Kossak-Wąchała
Looking forward to Halloween we would like to take you to some spookiest places in the world ! Can you keep a cool head …?
- Nagoro is a creepy Japanese village where dolls replace the departed. It might make you question the reality. Eleven years ago, Tsukimi Ayano returned home to Nagoro and she has populated the village with dolls.
2. The hill of crosses in Lithuania is a unique sacral place, amazing and the only one in the world.
3. In Sagada, Philippines, the dead are buried in coffins which are tied or nailed to the side of cliffs. This practise is over 2000 years old.
4. The Door to Hell, Turkmenistan. At the heart of Turkmenistan’s Karakum Desert sits a crater of fire the size of a football field that’s been perpetually burning now for almost fifty years. Locals have suitably dubbed it the ‘Door To Hell’, officially it’s known as the Darvaza Gas Crater.
5. Psychiatric Hospital in Zofiówka. The hospital was an uneasy place from the beginning ,but the occupation brought exceptionally hard times. During the liquidation in 1942 ,110 people were murdered there and the rest were transported to Treblinka. A lot of people say that the windows are showing figures walking at night through the corridors of the building.
6. Old Changi Hospital in Singapour,During the II World War, it served as a place of torture of the Japanese secret political police. In the ruins live ghosts of Japanese soldiers, people murdered during the occupation and patients who died there. You can see there a man walking down the corridor, a woman appearing and disappearing in the hospital rooms and bleeding soldiers of the Japanese army. And all this in the accompaniment of loud beats and screams of unexplained origin.
7. The Island of the Dolls, Xochimilco, Mexico City, Mexico. The Island of the Dolls, originally owned by Don Julián Santana, is full of dolls hanging from trees and buildings covered with cobwebs and insects. The place was named during the 1950s when the owner began to hang them as protection against evil spirits.
8. Hotel Banff Springs. Haunted hotel situated in Canada. This place has scary stories of ghosts and apparitions. Guests see demons of a burning bride and a young boy.
9. Aokigahara. A forest in Japan. Young boys and girls commit suicide or they attempt it in this place. This forest has a very bad power.
10. Trans-Allegheny Lunatic Asylum. The gothic stone structure of this old place just looks haunted, it’s no suprise there are ghost stories associated with this Civil War-era hospital. Construction began in 1858 and were used as a camp for Union Soliders. Originally built to house 250 patients, but in one time there were 2400 patients jammed into overcrowded, poor conditions. The hospital closed in 1994, but eventually was reopened as a tourist destination. Witnesses have reported doors slamming and bloodcurdling screams from within the buliding’s walls.
news co-prepared by students from class 1 B – Julia Psonka, Jakub Próba, Oliwia Piech, Justyna Wawrzyniak, Zuzanna Biernat, Wiktoria Majchrzak and Zuzanna Margas.
edited by Ms Joanna Wołkowicka
One of our school’s traditions is the integration rally dedicated to the first grade students, which always takes place at the beginning of September. This year it couldn’t be different, so on 11th September, punctually at 7.45 am freshmen gathered at the bus stop on Focha Street, from where we went by bus to Piasek, a small village near Częstochowa.
At first, the ambiance wasn’t really cool and relaxed, but thanks to our older friends from 3rd grade, the party started up and atmosphere became chilled-out.
Then, it was the time for group introductions. The shows were truly varied, starting with authorial songs, through roleplays, ending with dance choreographies. Each class’s performance was great and exceptional. Every single show was judged by the jury, but the indisputable winner was class 1g.
Afterwards, there was the time for sweet repast (there were delicious cakes and grilled sausages), and of course for dances.
Everybody was feeling the party spirit and having fun, but all good things must come to an end, so about 1.pm we went back to Częstochowa regretting, that this event lasted for a short while.
We are hoping, that pretty soon we’ll have the opportunity to spend time together, having so much fun like it was that day.
News prepared by Dagmara Cichoń from 1b, edited by Ms M.Kossak. Photos by Agata Kapuścińska from 2 g.
The New York Fashion Week takes place twice a year. The collection for next year’s autumn is presented in winter, and the spring collection is shown in autumn. Fashion Week in New York opens the world fashion series Weeks. The next ones take place in London, Paris and Milan.
The first Fashion Week took place in New York in 1943. Paris could not organize fashion shows due to the war. Then it was decided to organize a series of shows and join them in a weekly industry event held in New York.
Things you must have in autumn!!!
This year,in September, around 163 brands appeared in the American metropolis! There were both internationally renowned designers and young startup companies. During the current Fashion Week, designers presented the collections of the spring-summer, we found out what awaits us in the near future. Autumn-winter season 2018/2019 in terms of trends is really avant-garde.
Designers are trying to convince us to clothes and accessories, which would be considered ridiculous not so long ago. Spots, neon green, python skirts, blouses with big logos and cowboy boots are on top again. Cowboy boots are one of the trendiest shoes for the autumn of 2018. Social media such as instagram have certainly contributed to their popularity.
It’s a must-have for 2018, for which you do not have to spend money. All you need is old scarves. It’s important to tie your hair with it, just like girls on instagram, for example Jessica Mercedes.
Designers made leather (natural or eco) the trendiest material of the season in autumn 2018. Fashionable are both leather ramones, coat, jacket and suit. It used to be kitsch, now it’s a hit.
Logotypes are on top again, and wearing handbags / caps / t-shirts / jackets / blouses with a large visible logo is no longer fashionable. This trend is promoted by fashion houses such as Gucci and Dior.
What does await us in the spring and summer?
Many designers have so many different perspectives on spring and summer trends. I encourage you to see their collection. One of them is the new Tom Ford collection. This time the designer presented a very coherent collection in shades of black, lilac violet, brown, beige. It was a real mix of romantic drapes! Models and audience were delighted with fitted jackets and jackets made of embossed leather, lace tops and sensual skirts. Tom Ford explained: “I feel that fashion has somehow got lost and it is easy to get carried away by trends that have lost contact with what women and men want to wear. Looking at the harshness of the world, the more palatable palette of colors seemed to be the better this season. ”
Personally, I agree with the designer’s words. Nowadays fashion is mixed up. On all sides we are surrounded by so many trends that we do not know what we like. In fashion, the point is not to stand out and wear different clothes. That is why, it is so important to have your own taste. We should be inspired by events such as Fashion Week and create our own unique styles that describe us.
News prepared by Weronika Piotrowska from class II D.
There are many astonishing places in the world, WHERE YOU CAN GO ON HOLIDAY. But vast majority of these are underrated because of more popular destinations. This article is a presentation of untypical places worth visiting.
- Cheddar Gorge (Somerset, England) – if you like Polish Jurassic Highland, you’ll love this limestone gorge; beautiful landscapes and caves exploration are only a few tourist attractions of this place.
- White Cliffs of Dover (Kent, England) – immortalized by Słowacki’s „Kordian” town of Dover is famous for its magnificent chalk cliffs; sometimes, thanks to the good weather, you can look across the English Channel and see the coast of France.
- Minack Theatre (Cornwall, England) – it may look like Minack Theatre was raised in Ancient Times, but it was built in 1930’s; cultural events are held there from Easter to September.
- Castle Stalker (Scotland) – built in 14th century Castle Stalker is located near town of Port Appin; it’s also one of the places, where film „Monty Python and the Holy Grail” was shot.
- Giant’s Causeway (County Antrim, Northern Ireland) – this marvelous coastline, made of hexagonal, basalt columns is regarded as one of the natural wonders of the U.K.
- Rainbow Bridge National Monument (Utah, United States) – made of sandstone Rainbow Bridge is often regarded as the world’s highest natural bridge (13 m).
- Hamilton Pool Preserve (Texas, United States) – a natural pool surrounded by collapsed grotto and forest; incredible surroundings makes it the most unique pool in the world.
- Horsetail Fall (California, United States) – this seasonal waterfall located in Yosemite National Park is a natural phenomenon, because of the light of the setting sun, which illuminates the water in February.
- Antelope Canyon (Arizona, United States) – narrow paths and sandstone walls making people feeling tiny, the beauty of this slot canyon is also guaranteed by sunlight, which rarely dissapears from Arizona.
- Capilano Suspension Bridge (British Columbia, Canada) – simple, but amazing bridge across the Capilano River; if you are afraid of heights just focus on the woods surrounding the bridge.
- Jasper National Park’s Icefields Parkway (Alberta, Canada) – this is a great place for admiring glaciers of Rocky Mountains; breathtaking views provided.
- Shark Bay (Gascoyne, Australia) – not only Eastern Australia has interesting places to visit; exceptional fauna and flora and stunning views of the bay have been appreciated even by
- Lake Hillier (Goldfields-Esperance, Australia) – the main thing which is noticeable about this lake is its colour; the pink water is possible thanks to algaes which are living in the lake.
- Mount Ngauruhoe (New Zealand) – apart from being a mountain Ngauruhoe is also an active volcano; it was used in Peter Jackson’s „The Lord of the Rings” film trilogy as a stand-in for Mount Doom.
- Putangirua Pinnacles (New Zealand) – geological formation located in a valley in the Aorangi Ranges; it also appeared in Peter Jackson’s film adaptations of Tolkien’s „The Lord of the Rings”
Sources of photos: TripAdvisor, CNN, Youtube, meteoprog.pl
Written by Kacper Górak IIIB.
Prince Harry and Meghan Markle married on May 19, 2018. The chosen date fell on the same day as they FA Cup final at Wembley, a match that Primo Harry’s best man, the Duke of Cambridge, usually attends as president of the Football Association to present the trophy. The marriage of Prince Harry and Markle took place in St George’s Chapel at Windsor Castle at 12pm. They became the 16th royal couple to celebrate their marriage at Windsor Castle since 1863. After the couple got married they undertook a carriage procession from St George’s Chapel through Windsor town returning to Windsor Castle along the Long Walk.
news prepared by Aleksandra Krzyczmonik from 1 A
more pictures and news at http://www.royal.uk